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Farming is a game mechanic that allows players to grow food crops for use in cooking.

Required Materials

To begin farming, a player needs good soil and seeds to plant crops. A specialized tool, the hoe is required to convert soil into farmland.

Finding Seeds

Wild crops are created during world generation and can be found all over the world in different climatic regions. Breaking these crops is essential for gathering seeds to plant crops. Wild crops that are not mature do not always drop seeds when broken. Wild crops will grow, even when the chunks are not loaded, and their growth is not influenced by temperatures. However, they will also revert back to growth stage 1 after fully grown, if they are not harvested before the next growth tick. It is recommended to harvest all wild crops, regardless of growth stage, when out on a long journey, if the player foresees that they will not come the same way again.
Seeds can also be found in seed and farming loot vessels located in ruins - some crops can only be acquired this way.

Seed Type Product Location
Carrot Grid Carrot.png Temperate
Grain Grid flax.png Temperate
Onion Grid onion.png Temperate
Grain Grid spelt.png Temperate
Turnip Grid turnip.png Temperate
Parsnip Vegetable-parsnip.png Temperate
Grain Grid rice.png Temperate
Grain Grid rye.png Temperate
Soybean Legume-soybean.png Warm
Pumpkin Pumpkin-fruit-4.png Ruins Only
Cabbage Grid cabbage.png Ruins Only

Soil and Farmland

Naturally Generated Soil

Four types of naturally occurring soil exist in the world at different fertility rates: barren 5%, low 25%, medium 50%, and high called terra preta 80%. Soil retains its fertility levels when blocks are gathered and placed elsewhere, so a good farming strategy is to hunt soil with high nutrient levels and bring it home.

Player Created Soil

Compost is a player generated soil type with nutrient levels of 65%. This dirt is an alternative farming option if terra preta cannot be located. Each block of compost is created by sealing 64 rot in a barrel for 20 days.


Creating Farmland

Using a hoe + right mouse button on a soil block creates dry farmland. The farmland must be within 3 blocks of a water source block to convert from dry to moist farmland. The other solution to create moist farmland is daily watering using a watering can. Keep in mind that moisture levels above 50% give a bonus for growth speed, as long as the chunks the farm blocks are in is loaded. However, moisture below 50% does not give a penalty, and depending on play style, a bonus that only applies while one is near the farm might not matter at all.
Farmland blocks cannot be picked up and replaced once converted. Breaking farmland destroys the block.

Soil Nutrients

All soil, dirt, dry or moist farmland, has 3 nutrient levels, N, P, and K. Each crop consumes one of these nutrients. Some crops require higher values of nutrients than others, as shown in the table below. Crop growth rates also differ. Each crop has different total growth speed, which is shown by the number of growth days.

When crops advance from one growth stage to the next, they consume nutrients from the farmland on which they are planted. The required nutrient, K, P, or N, is the nutrient that will be consumed, reducing the concentration of that nutrient in the farmland. The amount of the nutrient required per growth stage is determined by dividing the Nutrient Consumption by the number of growth stages.

Nutrients in farmland slowly replenish over time and return to the maximum level per soil type, for instance medium fertility will only regain nutrients to original levels. The rate of nutrient replenishment is slower if a crop is growing on it and faster when left fallow - meaning no crop growing. The nutrition type used by the currently growing crop will regenerate even slower then the two not actively used, and effectively wont replenish at all, as the currently growing crop reduces it with every growth tick. If the crop on the farmland is ripe, none of the nutrients will replenish.
Nutrition replenishment ticks every 3 to 4 ingame hours.


Fertilizer such as saltpeter, potash and bonemeal can be applied to the soil to replenish nutriments. Using a fertilizer is the only time a soil type can exceed the maximum nutrient level of the soil type.


To harvest, left click on the crop with an empty hand or harvesting tool, knife or scythe. Fully mature crops will return seeds, food, and in the case of flax, fiber. All fully mature crops have about a 5% chance to drop an extra seed when harvested. Each crop is characterized by a set of Crop Properties. Crop properties consist of the following individual properties:

  • Growth Stages - The number of growth stages for a crop.
  • Total Growth Days - The number of in game days it takes for a crop to be fully grown (harvestable).
  • Required Nutrient - The type of nutrient (N, P, K) consumed from the farmland when a crop grows to the next stage.
  • Nutrient Consumption - The total amount of the required nutrient that will be consumed over the lifetime of a crop.
  • Cold/ Heat Resistant Until - Temperature range the crop can endure before it takes damage and then will yield less harvest on breaking. Generally all crops are able to keep growing only above 0°C. They might be able to endure lower temperatures without damage, but will not be able to grow under such circumstances. The only way to regulate temperature for crop growth at the moment is through the use of a greenhouse structure, which will raise the temperature. Keep in mind that getting to cold or too hot can halve the harvest of a crop, but the seeds will always be dropped.

Table of Available Crops

Crop Product Growth Stages Total Growth Days Required Nutrient Nutrient Consumption Cold Resistant Until Heat Resistant Until
Carrot Grid Carrot.png 7 4 K 40 -10°C 32°C
Flax Grid flax.png 9 4.2 K 50 -5°C 40°C
Onion Grid onion.png 7 3.6 P 35 -1°C 40°C
Spelt Grid spelt.png 9 4.4 N 40 -5°C 40°C
Turnip Grid turnip.png 5 3 N 30 -5°C 27°C
Parsnip Vegetable-parsnip.png 8 6 P 20 -10°C 32°C
Rice Grid rice.png 10 4.2 K 50 8°C 40°C
Rye Grid rye.png 9 5 N 40 -5°C 40°C
Soybean Legume-soybean.png 11 5.4 K 35 -5°C 40°C
Pumpkin Pumpkin-fruit-4.png 8 3.5 P 30 -5°C 40°C
Cabbage Grid cabbage.png 12 6.5 N 40 -5°C 35°C

Pumpkins are cultivated differently than all other crops. Please see the pumpkin page for detailed instructions about establishing a pumpkin patch.

Animal attacks

When building a farm, one should keep in mind that rabbits will go after planted crops and eat them, leaving not even the seeds behind.
Rabbits spawn on grass blocks, so to rabbit-proof your farms, it is recommended to either use a wall, fence or a 2 blocks deep dry moat around the farm blocks, leaving no grass blocks in the enclosed area. The latter offers the added bonus of catching hungry rabbits when they try to reach the players crops.

There are a few crops that will not be eaten by rabbits, namely rice, onions and pumpkins. Those could be planted without protection, however rice and onions should be planted in crop rotation with other plants, which would again need rabbit protection.
Wild crops will be ignored by rabbits.

Underground Farming

Starting with version 1.14, underground farming will no longer be an easily achievable solution. There is now a soft limit for plant growth in relation to depth below sea level: Each level below sea level requires one extra light level for the crop to grow, and below light level 19, each farther level incurs a 10% growth penality, which means growth will stop entirely at light level 9.

Given that the suns light level is 22, this means that with light shafts alone, which would be a direct connection between the sky and the farmland in form of a hole in the ground, farms can be placed at a maximum 3 levels below sea level without incurring growth penalties, and a maximum 12 levels below sea level before growth stops completely. With a fully set chandelier, which would reach light level 24, a slightly lower depth might be reached. However, light levels do not accumulate, meaning combining a light shaft with light level 22 and a lantern with light level 18 will still result in a maximum light level of 22.

"Underground" farms in a mountain range above sea level would however still be possible, as long as the required light level for growth is achieved with sun or artificial light.

In a default height world, sea level is at 110.

Food and Cooking

See cooking for more information on player nutrition and preparing foods to eat.

Video Tutorials

Detailed explanation including changes since version 1.13 Detailled explanation of pumpkin plants

Main Page: Vanilla Game Content
Terrain Blocks Rawclay blue.pngClay Grid Gravel Granite.pngGravel Peat.pngPeat Grid Rock granite.pngRock Grid Granite sand.pngSand Grid Barren low fertility soil.pngSoil
Construction Blocks Grid Blue clay bricks.pngCeramic Blocks Glass-plain.pngGlass Grid Oak plank.pngPlanks Grid Diagonal logs plaster.pngPlaster Grid Cob.pngSoil Blocks Grid Polished Granite.pngStone Blocks Grid Stone path.pngPath
Functional Blocks Grid Barrel.pngBarrelGrid Woodbucket.pngWooden Bucket Bed-wood-head-north.pngBed Chest-east.pngContainers Firepit lit.pngFirepit Forge.pngForge Grid Loot Vessel.pngLoot Vessels Grid Ore blasting bomb.pngOre blasting bomb Grid Large trough.pngTrough
Decorative Blocks Grid Painting.pngPaintings Mediumcarpet-turqoise-ns.pngCarpets Bookshelves-ns.pngBookshelves Flowerpot-earthern-empty.pngFlowerpots Agedwallpaperplanks-green-east.pngWallpapers
Metal Working Grid Copper anvil.pngAnvil Bloomery.pngBloomery Grid Crucible burned.pngCrucible Forge.pngForge Grid Tin bronze helve hammer.pngHelve hammer Ingot Mold Burned.pngMolds Grid Copper Ingot.pngMetal Gem-emerald-rough.pngGemstone
Tools & Weapons Grid Copper axe.pngAxe Bow-simple.pngBow Grid Copper Chisel.pngChisel Grid copper cleaver.pngCleaver Grid Wooden club.pngClub Grid Copper hammer.pngHammer Hoe-copper.pngHoe Knife-copper.pngKnife Pickaxe-copper.pngPickaxe Grid Copper prospecting pick.pngProspecting Pick Grid Copper saw.pngSaw Scythe-copper.pngScythe Grid Copper shears.pngShears Shovel-copper.pngShovel Grid Copper spear.pngSpear Sword-copper.pngSword
Equipment Armor-body-brigandine-iron.pngArmor Clothes-upperbody-lackey-shirt.pngClothes Grid Backpack.pngContainers
Craftable Resources Grid Oak board.pngBoards Charcoal.pngCharcoal Coke.pngCoke Grid Firewood.pngFirewood Grid Copper Ingot.pngIngots Grid Raw hide.pngLeather Flaxtwine.pngLinen
Plants Berrybush red currant ripe.pngBerry Bushes Grid Cattail tops.pngCooper's Reed (Cattail) Flower-californiapoppy.pngFlowers Tallgrass-tall.pngGrass Tallfern.pngOther Plants Grid Oak sapling.pngTrees Flax.pngWild Foods
Mobs BeeMob.pngBees Bighorn.pngBighorn sheep Rooster.pngChicken Normal Drifter.pngDrifter Fox(Male).pngFox Hare-male-lightbrown.pngHare Hyena.pngHyena Locust.pngLocust Raccoon.pngRaccoon Pig.pngWild Pig Wolf.pngWolf
Mechanics Pig.pngAnimal Husbandry Grid Empty skep.pngBeekeeping Grid Crucible burned.pngCasting Grid Blue clay.pngClay Forming Sword-copper.pngCombat Hoe-copper.pngFarming Bread-spelt.pngCooking Grid Flint arrow head.pngKnapping Grid Angled Gears.pngMechanical Power Pickaxe-copper.pngMining Grid Copper anvil.pngSmithing Creature-humanoid-trader-treasurehunter.pngTrading Gear-temporal.pngTemporal Stability

Grid Copper hammer.pngSteel Making

Grid Lore Book.pngCrafting Recipes Charcoal.pngFuel Grid Raw hide.pngLeather Working Torch.pngLight sources Grid Copper Chunk.pngOre Deposits Grid Ruins.pngRuins Grid Lore Scroll.pngStarter Guide Berrybush blueberry ripe.pngWorld Generation